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Notes on the Book of Revelation

Chapter 19

Praising God


Revelation 19 combines the events from the second coming of Christ to the end of the millennium, especially in verses 16-21.1


Revelation 20 goes back and gives more details about the millennium and what happens after the events of the millennium.  

Judgments of God.

Chapters 15-20 are primarily focused on the judgments of God. 


Chapter 15 introduces the plagues.


Chapter 16 explains the plagues. 


Chapter 17 describes the false church that will be judged.


Chapter 18 describes the fall of the false church (spiritual Babylon).


Chapter 19 describes judgment on the beast and the false prophet at the second coming of Jesus Christ


Chapter 20 describes judgment on all the wicked, Satan and his fallen angels. 

Seven Songs about Babylon.

Just another set of 7 in the book of Revelation like, seven churches, seven seals, seven trumpets, seven plagues, seven angels of the churches, seven angels of the trumpets, seven angels of the plagues, seven stars, seven candlesticks, seven Spirits of God, seven lamps of fire, seven horns and seven eyes, seven thunders, seven heads, seven crowns, and seven sanctuary visions.


Chapter 18:1 to 19:8 are seven songs about Babylon. (Maxwell, God Cares, vol. 2:462-470)

Song 1. 18:1-3

Song 2. 18:4-8

Song 3. 18:9-14

Song 4. 18:15-16

Song 5. 18:17-19

Song 6. 18:20-24

Song 7. 19:1-8


These are songs because they are all written in Hebrew poetry, specifically in a chiastic format. 


A.  Mighty voice of an angel: “Fallen is Babylon!” - 18:1-3

    B. Heavenly voice: “Come out of her, my people.” - 18:4-8

        C. Lament of the kings: “Alas! Alas!” - 18:9-14

        C’. Lament of the merchants: “Alas! Alas!” - 18:15-16

        C’’. Lament of the seafarers: “Alas! Alas!” - 18:17-19

A’.  Voice of a mighty angel: “So shall Babylon…be thrown down.” - 18:20-24

    B’.  Heavenly voice: God’s people rejoicing at Babylon’s fall. - 19:1-8


Another reason why we know these are songs is because Revelation 19:1-8 is the basis for Handel’s “Hallelujah Chorus.” 

This chart is taken from Pastor Stephen Bohr's series called, "From the Close of Probation to the New Earth", which is a part of his Anchor School of Theology classes. The entire series can be found on the Secrets Unsealed app and YouTube channel.  


  • Revelation 19:1, And after these things I heard a great voice of much people in heaven, saying, Alleluia; Salvation, and glory, and honour, and power, unto the Lord our God:


19V1: The book of Revelation contains four views of the 144,000 with different emphases: 

Revelation 7:1-8: The sealing of the 144,000.
Revelation 14:1-5: The character of the 144,000.
Revelation 15:2-3: The victory of the 144,000.
Revelation 19:1-9: The jubilatory song of praise to God of the 144,000. 

(Anchor School of Theology Class: From The Close of Probation to the New Earth: A Study of Revelation Chapters 15 to 22, by Pastor Stephen Bohr,,

19V1-10: This is the climax on Mount Zion for chapter 18 and verses 1-10 occur after verses 11-21. Even though all the saints will sing the song, the focus is on the 144,000 (or those that went through the time of trouble). 

19V1-10: These verses are also referred to as the song of joy and are in contrast to the lamentation of the multitudes in chapter 18:6-24. See note in 18V6-24 for more details. 

19V1: Alleluia = Hebrew for ‘Praise Jehovah!’, which is the focus of this chapter.2



  • Revelation 19:2, For true and righteous are his judgments: for he hath judged the great whore, which did corrupt the earth with her fornication, and hath avenged the blood of his servants at her hand.


19V2: The great whore = This is the first beast of Revelation 13, which is the false church since a woman is used to represent a church. To be more specific, this is the antichrist of end time events and is the papal system. Also mentioned in Revelation 17:1.


2 Corinthians 11:2 says, “For I am jealous over you with godly jealousy: for I have espoused you to one husband, that I may present you as a chaste virgin to Christ.”


Ephesians 5:25-27 says, “Husbands, love your wives, even as Christ also loved the church, and gave himself for it; That he might sanctify and cleanse it with the washing of water by the word, That he might present it to himself a glorious church, not having spot, or wrinkle, or any such thing; but that it should be holy and without blemish.”


Jeremiah 6:2 says, “I have likened the daughter of Zion to a comely and delicate woman.”  


19V2: Corrupt the earth = This false church corrupts the entire earth with its false teachings and doctrines and riches, Revelation 17:2, 12-13; 18:3, 9. 


19V2: Her fornication = The rulers of the earth united with the papacy to persecute God’s end time church (the remnant church). Fornication is the union of church and state (religious and civil powers) to persecute God’s people or more specifically, it is the persecution of those that refuse to follow the false teachings and doctrines of the apostate church.

19V2: Hath avenged = The avenging took place as the seven last plagues. The judging took place in heaven during the investigative judgment when the heavenly beings went through the books and judged the dead in Christ and then at some point moved to the living in Christ. The judging takes place before the close of probation and the avenging took place after the close of probation during the seven last plagues. 


19V2: Blood of his servants = Those that have been martyred for their faith in Jesus Christ and His true teachings. Those that keep the commandments of God and have the faith of Jesus, Revelation 14:12; 12:17. 



  • Revelation 19:3, And again they said, Alleluia. And her smoke rose up for ever and ever.


19V3: Smoke rose up for ever and ever = Spiritual Babylon’s destruction will be complete and final; this does not mean an eternal burning situation, see Revelation 14:11. The smoke will rise until it is no more visible to the naked eye, it will seem to rise for ever and ever which is symbolic for the complete and final destruction of spiritual Babylon. 

The wicked will burn for a time that is equivalent to what they have done. 


Psalm 28:4, “Give them according to their deeds, and according to the wickedness of their endeavours: give them after the work of their hands; render to them their desert.”


Isaiah 59:18, “According to their deeds, accordingly he will repay, fury to his adversaries, recompence to his enemies; to the islands he will repay recompence.”


Jeremiah 25:14, “For many nations and great kings shall serve themselves of them also: and I will recompense them according to their deeds, and according to the works of their own hands.”


Revelation 2:23, “And I will kill her children with death; and all the churches shall know that I am he which searcheth the reins and hearts: and I will give unto every one of you according to your works.”


Revelation 20:12, “And I saw the dead, small and great, stand before God; and the books were opened: and another book was opened, which is the book of life: and the dead were judged out of those things which were written in the books, according to their works.”


Revelation 20:13, “And the sea gave up the dead which were in it; and death and hell delivered up the dead which were in them: and they were judged every man according to their works.”


“Then I saw thrones, and Jesus and the redeemed saints sat upon them; and the saints reigned as kings and priests unto God. Christ, in union with His people, judged the wicked dead, comparing their acts with the statute book, the Word of God, and deciding every case according to the deeds done in the body. Then they meted out to the wicked the portion which they must suffer, according to their works; and it was written against their names in the book of death. Satan also and his angels were judged by Jesus and the saints. Satan's punishment was to be far greater than that of those whom he had deceived. His suffering would so far exceed theirs as to bear no comparison with it. After all those whom he had deceived had perished, Satan was still to live and suffer on much longer.” (Early Writings, page 290.3)


“The wicked receive their recompense in the earth. Proverbs 11:31. They “shall be stubble: and the day that cometh shall burn them up, saith the Lord of hosts.” Malachi 4:1. Some are destroyed as in a moment, while others suffer many days. All are punished “according to their deeds.” The sins of the righteous having been transferred to Satan, he is made to suffer not only for his own rebellion, but for all the sins which he has caused God's people to commit. His punishment is to be far greater than that of those whom he has deceived. After all have perished who fell by his deceptions, he is still to live and suffer on. In the cleansing flames the wicked are at last destroyed, root and branch—Satan the root, his followers the branches. The full penalty of the law has been visited; the demands of justice have been met; and heaven and earth, beholding, declare the righteousness of Jehovah.” (The Great Controversy, page 673.1)

Even Satan will eventually burn up into ashes. 


Ezekiel 28:18, “Thou hast defiled thy sanctuaries by the multitude of thine iniquities, by the iniquity of thy traffick; therefore will I bring forth a fire from the midst of thee, it shall devour thee, and I will bring thee to ashes upon the earth in the sight of all them that behold thee.”


The rest of the wicked will also be burned up into ashes. Hell is not eternal. 


Malachi 4:3, “And ye shall tread down the wicked; for they shall be ashes under the soles of your feet in the day that I shall do this, saith the LORD of hosts.”



  • Revelation 19:4, And the four and twenty elders and the four beasts fell down and worshipped God that sat on the throne, saying, Amen; Alleluia.


19V4: 24 Elders = These are the ‘Adams’ of unfallen worlds; these are the first created beings (like Adam) of each of the unfallen worlds that God has created in the universe. God has created other worlds, Hebrews 1:2. This is a symbolic number and so there could be many more than 24 other worlds created by God. For more details, see the study called, The 24 Elders. 


Hebrews 1:2, “Hath in these last days spoken unto us by his Son, whom he hath appointed heir of all things, by whom also he made the worlds;”


Hebrews 11:3, “Through faith we understand that the worlds were framed by the word of God, so that things which are seen were not made of things which do appear.”


19V4: The four beasts = These are first mentioned in Revelation chapter 4. These are seraphim (a type of high ranking angel), they are described in Isaiah 6:1-3 with the same characteristics of having six wings and singing holy, holy, holy (Revelation 4:8). Cherubims are described in the Bible as having four wings, Ezekiel 10:21, and they have four different faces, Ezekiel 10:14, so there are different types of angels in heaven with different responsibilities while serving God.3 


Isaiah 6:1-3, “In the year that king Uzziah died I saw also the Lord sitting upon a throne, high and lifted up, and his train filled the temple. Above it stood the seraphims: each one had six wings; with twain he covered his face, and with twain he covered his feet, and with twain he did fly. And one cried unto another, and said, Holy, holy, holy, is the LORD of hosts: the whole earth is full of his glory.”


Ezekiel 10:21, “Every one had four faces apiece, and every one four wings; and the likeness of the hands of a man was under their wings.”


Ezekiel 10:14, “And every one had four faces: the first face was the face of a cherub, and the second face was the face of a man, and the third the face of a lion, and the fourth the face of an eagle.”



  • Revelation 19:5, And a voice came out of the throne, saying, Praise our God, all ye his servants, and ye that fear him, both small and great.


19V5: Praise our God = This verse and verse 6 are important for a couple of reasons. The first is that these verses explain the premise of chapter 19 which is praising God (here specifically referring to Jesus). We know this is God the Father speaking in verse 5 because in verse 6 it refers to His voice. The other reason these two verses are important is because they show that God the Father refers to Jesus as God. In this verse, God the Father refers to Jesus as God, which refutes claims that Jesus is not God. We can also find this in Hebrews 1:5-10, where God the Father refers to Jesus as God in verse 8 and as Lord in verse 10. We can also find the Father referring to Jesus as Lord in Psalm 110:1. 


Hebrews 1:5-10, “For unto which of the angels said he at any time, Thou art my Son, this day have I begotten thee? And again, I will be to him a Father, and he shall be to me a Son? And again, when he bringeth in the firstbegotten into the world, he saith, And let all the angels of God worship him. And of the angels he saith, Who maketh his angels spirits, and his ministers a flame of fire. But unto the Son he saith, Thy throne, O God, is for ever and ever: a sceptre of righteousness is the sceptre of thy kingdom. Thou hast loved righteousness, and hated iniquity; therefore God, even thy God, hath anointed thee with the oil of gladness above thy fellows. And, Thou, Lord, in the beginning hast laid the foundation of the earth; and the heavens are the works of thine hands:”


Psalm 110:1, “The LORD said unto my Lord, Sit thou at my right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool.”



  • Revelation 19:6, And I heard as it were the voice of a great multitude, and as the voice of many waters, and as the voice of mighty thunderings, saying, Alleluia: for the Lord God omnipotent reigneth. 


19V6: Voice of a great multitude…many waters…voice of thunderings = The voice of God. 


Ezekiel 43:2, “And, behold, the glory of the God of Israel came from the way of the east: and his voice was like a noise of many waters: and the earth shined with his glory.”


Daniel 10:6, “His body also was like the beryl, and his face as the appearance of lightning, and his eyes as lamps of fire, and his arms and his feet like in colour to polished brass, and the voice of his words like the voice of a multitude.”


Water represents multitudes in Bible symbolism.


Revelation 17:15, “And he saith unto me, The waters which thou sawest, where the whore sitteth, are peoples, and multitudes, and nations, and tongues.”


So His voice sounding like a multitude can also represent a soothing voice as rushing waters is sometimes considered soothing, Jesus is attractive to those that seek Him.4 


Job 40:9, “Hast thou an arm like God? or canst thou thunder with a voice like him?”


Psalm 104:7, “At thy rebuke they fled; at the voice of thy thunder they hasted away.”


Here again, as in the verse 5, God the Father is referring to Jesus as Lord God, which shows that Jesus is God. 



  • Revelation 19:7, Let us be glad and rejoice, and give honour to him: for the marriage of the Lamb is come, and his wife hath made herself ready.


19V7: This verse is the focal point of the entire book of Revelation; this was a love story as depicted in Proverbs 31:1-31.


Proverbs chapter 31 is prophetic and it states so in verse 1, “The words of king Lemuel, the prophecy that his mother taught him.”


If this is a prophetic chapter then it must contain symbolism and that’s exactly what we see. 


Verses 2-3 makes it clear that this is a woman speaking to her son, “What, my son? and what, the son of my womb? and what, the son of my vows? Give not thy strength unto women, nor thy ways to that which destroyeth kings.”


Woman = Is symbolic for a church and can represent God’s church or the false church.


Revelation 17:5-6, “And upon her forehead was a name written, MYSTERY, BABYLON THE GREAT, THE MOTHER OF HARLOTS AND ABOMINATIONS OF THE EARTH. And I saw the woman drunken with the blood of the saints, and with the blood of the martyrs of Jesus: and when I saw her, I wondered with great admiration.”


Jeremiah 6:2, “I have likened the daughter of Zion to a comely and delicate woman.”


2 Corinthians 11:2, “For I am jealous over you with godly jealousy: for I have espoused you to one husband, that I may present you as a chaste virgin to Christ.”


Ephesians 5:25-27, “Husbands, love your wives, even as Christ also loved the church, and gave himself for it; That he might sanctify and cleanse it with the washing of water by the word, That he might present it to himself a glorious church, not having spot, or wrinkle, or any such thing; but that it should be holy and without blemish.”


In verse 3 it mentions that false churches (with its false teachings) will destroy kings. We are those kings, Revelation 1:6, “And hath made us kings and priests unto God and his Father; to him be glory and dominion for ever and ever. Amen.” This is telling us not to be corrupted by the teachings of the false or apostate church. 


In verse 4 the prophecy mentions wine, “It is not for kings, O Lemuel, it is not for kings to drink wine; nor for princes strong drink:”


Wine = False teachings and doctrines. See study ‘Wine of Babylon’. 


Example: The 144,000 were undefiled with woman. 


Revelation 14:4, “These are they which were not defiled with women; for they are virgins. These are they which follow the Lamb whithersoever he goeth. These were redeemed from among men, being the firstfruits unto God and to the Lamb.”


This means the 144,000 were undefiled by the false teachings of the apostate or false church, since a women in Bible prophecy means a church. 


In verse 5, it says, “Lest they drink, and forget the law, and pervert the judgment of any of the afflicted.”


If we drink the wine (false doctrines and false teachings) we’ll forget the law of God, specifically the fourth commandment dealing with the Sabbath which starts with the word ‘remember’. 


Proverbs 31:6-7, “Give strong drink unto him that is ready to perish, and wine unto those that be of heavy hearts. Let him drink, and forget his poverty, and remember his misery no more.” 


The phrase ‘give strong drink (or wine) unto him that is ready to perish points us to John 3:16. 


John 3:16, “For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life.”


Those that are ready to perish are the lost. Giving them strong drink is strong delusions. In 2 Thessalonians chapter 2 it mentions those that perish and have strong delusion. 


 2 Thessalonians 2:10-12, “And with all deceivableness of unrighteousness in them that perish; because they received not the love of the truth, that they might be saved. And for this cause God shall send them strong delusion, that they should believe a lie: That they all might be damned who believed not the truth, but had pleasure in unrighteousness.”


In verse 6 it also mentions ‘heavy hearts’ = This means those in anguish or bitter distress or whose life is bitter = This is a description of the lost or the wicked.


In verse 7 it says, “Let him drink, and forget his poverty, and remember his misery no more.”


This is referring to the lost who will believe the false teachings which will give them false hope. False teachings such as spiritualism and reincarnation and other ways to get to heaven other than Jesus. 


Poverty here refers to their lack of true righteousness. They are covered in filthy rags of the poor, Isaiah 64:6, “But we are all as an unclean thing, and all our righteousnesses are as filthy rags; and we all do fade as a leaf; and our iniquities, like the wind, have taken us away.”


Proverbs 31:10-31 describes God’s end time church prophetically. So this is a description of the true church. 


Proverbs 31:29-31 describes the church that fears the Lord and will not be liked by the world (favour is deceitful).


This church may not be pretty (beauty is vain) but it is God’s church that keeps the commandments of God (has not forgotten the law, Proverbs 31:5) and have the faith of Jesus, Revelation 14:12.


The apostate church deals in merchandise for her own gain (Revelation 18:11-19); the good church deals in merchandise to help her family and the poor and needy (Proverbs 31:9, 15).5


19V7: Note: There are two brides referred to in the Bible, one is God’s city, New Jerusalem and the other is His church, Revelation 21:2, 9-10. The saints are referred to as a bride in Jeremiah 33:11 which says, “The voice of joy, and the voice of gladness, the voice of the bridegroom, and the voice of the bride, the voice of them that shall say, Praise the LORD of hosts: for the LORD is good; for his mercy endureth for ever: and of them that shall bring the sacrifice of praise into the house of the LORD. For I will cause to return the captivity of the land, as at the first, saith the LORD.”, and Isaiah 62:5 which says, “For as a young man marrieth a virgin, so shall thy sons marry thee: and as the bridegroom rejoiceth over the bride, so shall thy God rejoice over thee.”6



  • Revelation 19:8, And to her was granted that she should be arrayed in fine linen, clean and white: for the fine linen is the righteousness of saints.

19V8: Righteousness of saints = Aren’t the white robes representative of the righteousness of Jesus? Why does it say righteousness of saints here? Note: In the Greek, a better translation is ‘righteous acts of saints’. 


“By the wedding garment in the parable is represented the pure, spotless character which Christ's true followers will possess. To the church it is given “that she should be arrayed in fine linen, clean and white,” “not having spot, or wrinkle, or any such thing.” Revelation 19:8; Ephesians 5:27. The fine linen, says the Scripture, “is the righteousness of saints.” Revelation 19:8. It is the righteousness of Christ, His own unblemished character, that through faith is imparted to all who receive Him as their personal Saviour.” (Christ’s Object Lessons, page 310.3)


Notice the statement said ‘imparted’. Justification is imputed and sanctification is imparted. Keep this in mind as we read the next statement. 


“When we submit ourselves to Christ, the heart is united with His heart, the will is merged in His will, the mind becomes one with His mind, the thoughts are brought into captivity to Him; we live His life. This is what it means to be clothed with the garment of His righteousness. Then as the Lord looks upon us He sees, not the fig-leaf garment, not the nakedness and deformity of sin, but His own robe of righteousness, which is perfect obedience to the law of Jehovah.” (Christ’s Object Lessons, page 311.4)


Through the life-long process of sanctification, we live the life of Christ and our characters are transformed into His likeness. We all strive to be Christ-like in our characters. 


“Some people think that justification is the work of God and sanctification is our own work. However, this is a deadly misconception. The righteous acts of the saints were not their own doing. They were the outflowing of the righteousness

of Christ in their practical lives:” (Pastor Bohr, From the Close of Probation to the New Earth, study notes page 177)


Isaiah 26:12, “LORD, thou wilt ordain peace for us: for thou also hast wrought all our works in us.”


Philippians 2:12-13, “Wherefore, my beloved, as ye have always obeyed, not as in my presence only, but now much more in my absence, work out your own salvation with fear and trembling. For it is God which worketh in you both to will and to do of his good pleasure.”


Ephesians 2:8-10, “For by grace are ye saved through faith; and that not of yourselves: it is the gift of God: Not of works, lest any man should boast. For we are his workmanship, created in Christ Jesus unto good works, which God hath before ordained that we should walk in them.”


That’s why it says the righteous acts of the saints, because God is working in us and through us. It is still His righteousness. 


19V8: White linen = Primarily represents the saints covered in the righteousness of Jesus Christ.


Isaiah 61:10, “I will greatly rejoice in the LORD, my soul shall be joyful in my God; for he hath clothed me with the garments of salvation, he hath covered me with the robe of righteousness, as a bridegroom decketh himself with ornaments, and as a bride adorneth herself with her jewels.”


But it also represents Jesus’ glory and wisdom. 


Proverbs 16:31, “The hoary head is a crown of glory, if it be found in the way of righteousness.” 


White hair would command the same respect as gray hair (both representing elders who deserve respect and honor). Jesus’ glory was often mentioned in the New Testament.


Matthew 16:27, “For the Son of man shall come in the glory of his Father with his angels; and then he shall reward every man according to his works.”


Matthew 19:28, “And Jesus said unto them, Verily I say unto you, That ye which have followed me, in the regeneration when the Son of man shall sit in the throne of his glory, ye also shall sit upon twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel.”


Matthew 24:30, “And then shall appear the sign of the Son of man in heaven: and then shall all the tribes of the earth mourn, and they shall see the Son of man coming in the clouds of heaven with power and great glory.”


Matthew 25:31, “When the Son of man shall come in his glory, and all the holy angels with him, then shall he sit upon the throne of his glory:”


Mark 10:37, “They said unto him, Grant unto us that we may sit, one on thy right hand, and the other on thy left hand, in thy glory.”


Luke 2:9, “And, lo, the angel of the Lord came upon them, and the glory of the Lord shone round about them: and they were sore afraid.”


Luke 9:26, “For whosoever shall be ashamed of me and of my words, of him shall the Son of man be ashamed, when he shall come in his own glory, and in his Father's, and of the holy angels.”


John 1:14, “And the Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us, (and we beheld his glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father,) full of grace and truth.”


2 Corinthians 4:6, “For God, who commanded the light to shine out of darkness, hath shined in our hearts, to give the light of the knowledge of the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ.”


2 Corinthians 8:23, “Whether any do enquire of Titus, he is my partner and fellowhelper concerning you: or our brethren be enquired of, they are the messengers of the churches, and the glory of Christ.”


The righteousness of Jesus was also mentioned in the New Testament, 


Matthew 6:33, “But seek ye first the kingdom of God, and his righteousness; and all these things shall be added unto you.”


Romans 1:17, “For therein is the righteousness of God revealed from faith to faith: as it is written, The just shall live by faith.”


Romans 3:5, 21-22, “But if our unrighteousness commend the righteousness of God, what shall we say? Is God unrighteous who taketh vengeance? (I speak as a man)…..But now the righteousness of God without the law is manifested, being witnessed by the law and the prophets; Even the righteousness of God which is by faith of Jesus Christ unto all and upon all them that believe: for there is no difference:”


Romans 10:3, “For they being ignorant of God's righteousness, and going about to establish their own righteousness, have not submitted themselves unto the righteousness of God.”


The righteousness of God is also associated with wisdom.


1 Corinthians 1:30, “But of him are ye in Christ Jesus, who of God is made unto us wisdom, and righteousness, and sanctification, and redemption:” 


The wisdom of Jesus is also mentioned, 


Mark 6:2, “And when the sabbath day was come, he began to teach in the synagogue: and many hearing him were astonished, saying, From whence hath this man these things? and what wisdom is this which is given unto him, that even such mighty works are wrought by his hands?”


Luke 2:40, 52, “And the child grew, and waxed strong in spirit, filled with wisdom: and the grace of God was upon him….And Jesus increased in wisdom and stature, and in favour with God and man.”


Luke 11:49, “Therefore also said the wisdom of God, I will send them prophets and apostles, and some of them they shall slay and persecute:”


Romans 11:33, “O the depth of the riches both of the wisdom and knowledge of God! how unsearchable are his judgments, and his ways past finding out!”


1 Corinthians 1:24, “But unto them which are called, both Jews and Greeks, Christ the power of God, and the wisdom of God.”


1 Corinthians 2:7, “But we speak the wisdom of God in a mystery, even the hidden wisdom, which God ordained before the world unto our glory:”


Ephesians 3:10, “To the intent that now unto the principalities and powers in heavenly places might be known by the church the manifold wisdom of God,”


19V8: This verse describes a wedding, Matthew 22:1-14, parable of the wedding feast; here it is describing the union of humanity with divinity (marriage).7 The next verse even mentions a ‘marriage supper’.  



  • Revelation 19:9, And he saith unto me, Write, Blessed are they which are called unto the marriage supper of the Lamb. And he saith unto me, These are the true sayings of God.


19V9: Blessed = Translates as happy and is the same word used by Jesus in the sermon on the mount. There are seven blessings in the book of Revelation. The first one is in chapter 1 verse 3 and the others are in Revelation 14:13; 16:15; 20:6; 22:7; and 22:14. 


These are the blessings summarized:

  1. Those that read, hear and keep the things written in Revelation.

  2. Those that die in the Lord. 

  3. Those that watch and keep their garments (of righteousness). 

  4. Those that are invited to the marriage supper of the Lamb. 

  5. Those that are in the first resurrection. 

  6. Those that keep the sayings of prophecy in Revelation.

  7. Those that do His commandments. 


Most of these blessings are action words, which show that Christians should not only hear but be doers of the Word. James 1:22, “But be ye doers of the word, and not hearers only, deceiving your own selves.”

19V9: Supper of the Lamb = There are two suppers, this one, which is for the righteous. And the supper of the Great God in verse 17, which is for the wicked. The wicked are the supper for the birds. 


There are only two sides in the Great Controversy. There are two suppers, one for the righteous and one for the wicked. There are two resurrections, one for the righteous and one for the wicked. There are two judgments, one for the righteous and one for the wicked. There are two churches, one for the righteous and one for the wicked. 

19V9: EGW commentary describes the marriage supper of the Lamb. 


“Soon we heard His lovely voice again, saying, “Come, My people, you have come out of great tribulation, and done My will; suffered for Me; come in to supper, for I will gird Myself, and serve you.” We shouted, “Alleluia! glory!” and entered into the city. And I saw a table of pure silver; it was many miles in length, yet our eyes could extend over it. I saw the fruit of the tree of life, the manna, almonds, figs, pomegranates, grapes, and many other kinds of fruit.” (Early Writings, page 19)



  • Revelation 19:10, And I fell at his feet to worship him. And he said unto me, See thou do it not: I am thy fellowservant, and of thy brethren that have the testimony of Jesus: worship God: for the testimony of Jesus is the spirit of prophecy.


19V10: See thou do it not = Good angels do not accept worship, also occurs in Revelation 22:9. John is in such awe of the angels presence that he tries to worship the angel twice and is told not to do such a thing. Only God should receive our worship. 


19V10: The testimony of Jesus is the spirit of prophecy, which means that the end time church will have a prophet, Revelation 12:17. See study called, The Gift of Prophecy. 


This phrase is used four times in the book of Revelation, here and in Revelation 1:2, 1:9, and 12:17. 


Zechariah 7:12, “Yea, they made their hearts as an adamant stone, lest they should hear the law, and the words which the LORD of hosts hath sent in his spirit by the former prophets: therefore came a great wrath from the LORD of hosts.”


1 Peter 1:10-12, “Of which salvation the prophets have enquired and searched diligently, who prophesied of the grace that should come unto you: Searching what, or what manner of time the Spirit of Christ which was in them did signify, when it testified beforehand the sufferings of Christ, and the glory that should follow. Unto whom it was revealed, that not unto themselves, but unto us they did minister the things, which are now reported unto you by them that have preached the gospel unto you with the Holy Ghost sent down from heaven; which things the angels desire to look into.”


2 Peter 1:20-21, “Knowing this first, that no prophecy of the scripture is of any private interpretation. For the prophecy came not in old time by the will of man: but holy men of God spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost.”



  • Revelation 19:11, And I saw heaven opened, and behold a white horse; and he that sat upon him was called Faithful and True, and in righteousness he doth judge and make war. 


19V11-21: These verses cover the seventh plague. 

19V11: White horse = In the apostolic church this represented the church conquering with the gospel of Christ, Revelation 6:2 (the first seal). Here in this verse it more aligns with the symbol of God and His people connected together, Revelation 19:11-16 (behold a white horse…the armies which were in heaven followed him upon white horses); Zechariah 10:3 (house of Judah as his goodly horse in battle), horse = House of Judah (God’s people); also in Isaiah 63:13-14 (horse in the wilderness which represents His church). God wants us to give Him the reigns of our hearts so He can lead us like a horse.8


“This horse tells of royalty, judgment, and war. His white color tells of righteousness and justice. Light is the robe of divine majesty, and white is the color that most attaches to Christ in all these judgment scenes. When the first seal broke he rode a white horse; when the great harvest is reaped he sits upon a white cloud; and at the end of the thousand years he sits upon a white throne; and so here he is seated on the white steed of battle, for ‘in righteousness doth he makes war.’” (Joseph Seiss, The Apocalypse: Exposition of the Book of Revelation, Electronic Database. Copyright © 1998, 2003, 2006)

19V11: Make war = This is describing the second coming of Jesus Christ and He is coming to make war because the devil is making war with God’s people (the saints), Revelation 12:17.9 Satan is also gathering his followers for the battle of that great day of God Almighty (Armageddon), Revelation 16:13-14, 16, which is right before the second coming of Jesus in verse 15. The second coming of Jesus and the battle (war) are connected together. 



  • Revelation 19:12, His eyes were as a flame of fire, and on his head were many crowns; and he had a name written, that no man knew, but he himself.


19V12: Eyes were as a flame of fire = In Revelation 1:14 His eyes were as a flame of fire, but they were to search out sin. Here His eyes are a flame of fire to destroy those that cling to sin. 


“To sin, wherever found, “our God is a consuming fire.” Hebrews 12:29. In all who submit to His power the Spirit of God will consume sin. But if men cling to sin, they become identified with it. Then the glory of God, which destroys sin, must destroy them…..But wherever men came before God while willfully cherishing evil, they were destroyed. At the second advent of Christ the wicked shall be consumed “with the Spirit of His mouth,” and destroyed “with the brightness of His coming.” 2 Thessalonians 2:8. The light of the glory of God, which imparts life to the righteous, will slay the wicked.” (Desire of Ages, page 107.4)

19V12: Crowns = This represents a kingly crown of a conquering king. It is made up of seven crowns within crowns. 


“We gathered about Jesus, and just as He closed the gates of the city, the curse was pronounced upon the wicked. The gates were shut. Then the saints used their wings and mounted to the top of the wall of the city. Jesus was also with them; His crown looked brilliant and glorious. It was a crown within a crown, seven in number.” (Early Writings, pages 53, 54)


19V12: No man knew, but he himself = “The ‘name written, that no man knew, but he himself' (v. 12) represents the

heretofore unknown role in which He now appears, as the avenger of His people. In the performance of this ‘strange’ work (Isa. 28:21) He acts in a role new to both men and angels.” (Seventh-day Adventist Bible Commentary, volume 7, page 874)


This may also describe His experience on the cross and His experience of being God in the flesh; Jesus is the only one that can call Himself the Saviour or the Redeemer or the Word or whatever the name is, because He is the only one to have gone through those experiences; verse 13 mentions His name as The Word of God.10



  • Revelation 19:13, And he was clothed with a vesture dipped in blood: and his name is called The Word of God.


19V13: Robe dipped in blood = Represents Jesus coming with vengeance to destroy those that would destroy His people. It is an image of people stomping in a winepress and the grape juice splattering on their clothes and becoming stained with the “blood” of the grapes, Isaiah 63:1-4.11 This is the war described in verse 11. God is taking vengeance, Romans 12:17-19. 


“The blood that the garments of Jesus are dipped in is not His own but that of His enemies. As he tramples the grapes in the winepress, the juice splatters on his garments and it looks like blood.” (Pastor Bohr, From the Close of Probation to the New Earth, study guide, page 190-191)


Isaiah 63:1-4, “Who is this that cometh from Edom, with dyed garments from Bozrah? this that is glorious in his apparel, travelling in the greatness of his strength? I that speak in righteousness, mighty to save. Wherefore art thou red in thine apparel, and thy garments like him that treadeth in the winefat? I have trodden the winepress alone; and of the people there was none with me: for I will tread them in mine anger, and trample them in my fury; and their blood shall be sprinkled upon my garments, and I will stain all my raiment. For the day of vengeance is in mine heart, and the year of my redeemed is come.”


Romans 12:17-19, “Recompense to no man evil for evil. Provide things honest in the sight of all men. If it be possible, as much as lieth in you, live peaceably with all men. Dearly beloved, avenge not yourselves, but rather give place unto wrath: for it is written, Vengeance is mine; I will repay, saith the Lord.”


Joel 3:9-12, “Proclaim ye this among the Gentiles; Prepare war, wake up the mighty men, let all the men of war draw near; let them come up: Beat your plowshares into swords, and your pruninghooks into spears: let the weak say, I am strong. Assemble yourselves, and come, all ye heathen, and gather yourselves together round about: thither cause thy mighty ones to come down, O LORD. Let the heathen be wakened, and come up to the valley of Jehoshaphat: for there will I sit to judge all the heathen round about.”


Revelation 14:20, “And the winepress was trodden without the city, and blood came out of the winepress, even unto the horse bridles, by the space of a thousand and six hundred furlongs.”


19V13: Dipped = The greek word is Bapto, which means to dip into, or immerse or to dye something. The verse also says that Jesus is coming with the robe already dipped in blood. This must mean the blood of the saints that were martyred and were figuratively calling out for vengeance (Revelation 6:9-11). 


Then, when Jesus tramples upon the wicked, the blood of the wicked then splatters on His robe, so both events can happen (blood already on the robe and the robe being splattered with the blood of the wicked). 



  • Revelation 19:14, And the armies which were in heaven followed him upon white horses, clothed in fine linen, white and clean.


19V14: Armies upon white horses = The angels of God. 


All through the Bible it describes Jesus coming in the clouds at the second coming which are His angels. 


Matthew 16:27, “For the Son of man shall come in the glory of his Father with his angels; and then he shall reward every man according to his works.”


Matthew 24:30-31, “And then shall appear the sign of the Son of man in heaven: and then shall all the tribes of the earth mourn, and they shall see the Son of man coming in the clouds of heaven with power and great glory. And he shall send his angels with a great sound of a trumpet, and they shall gather together his elect from the four winds, from one end of heaven to the other.”


Matthew 25:31, “When the Son of man shall come in his glory, and all the holy angels with him, then shall he sit upon the throne of his glory:”


Matthew 26:64, “Jesus saith unto him, Thou hast said: nevertheless I say unto you, Hereafter shall ye see the Son of man sitting on the right hand of power, and coming in the clouds of heaven.”


Daniel 7:13, “I saw in the night visions, and, behold, one like the Son of man came with the clouds of heaven, and came to the Ancient of days, and they brought him near before him.”


Acts 1:9-10, “And when he had spoken these things, while they beheld, he was taken up; and a cloud received him out of their sight. And while they looked stedfastly toward heaven as he went up, behold, two men stood by them in white apparel;”


EGW commentary confirms that the army is an army of angels. 


“Soon there appears in the east a small black cloud, about half the size of a man's hand. It is the cloud which surrounds the Saviour and which seems in the distance to be shrouded in darkness. The people of God know this to be the sign of the Son of man. In solemn silence they gaze upon it as it draws nearer the earth, becoming lighter and more glorious, until it is a great white cloud, its base a glory like consuming fire, and above it the rainbow of the covenant. Jesus rides forth as a mighty conqueror. Not now a “Man of Sorrows,” to drink the bitter cup of shame and woe, He comes, victor in heaven and earth, to judge the living and the dead. “Faithful and True,” “in righteousness He doth judge and make war.” And “the armies which were in heaven” (Revelation 19:11, 14) follow Him. With anthems of celestial melody the holy angels, a vast, unnumbered throng, attend Him on His way. The firmament seems filled with radiant forms—“ten thousand times ten thousand, and thousands of thousands.” No human pen can portray the scene; no mortal mind is adequate to conceive its splendor. “His glory covered the heavens, and the earth was full of His praise. And His brightness was as the light.” Habakkuk 3:3, 4. As the living cloud comes still nearer, every eye beholds the Prince of life. No crown of thorns now mars that sacred head; but a diadem of glory rests on His holy brow. His countenance outshines the dazzling brightness of the noonday sun. “And He hath on His vesture and on His thigh a name written, King of kings, and Lord of lords.” Revelation 19:16. (The Great Controversy, page 640.3)



  • Revelation 19:15, And out of his mouth goeth a sharp sword, that with it he should smite the nations: and he shall rule them with a rod of iron: and he treadeth the winepress of the fierceness and wrath of Almighty God. 


19V15-18: Describes the second coming of Christ, Matthew 24:27-28, “For as the lightning cometh out of the east, and shineth even unto the west; so shall also the coming of the Son of man be. For wheresoever the carcase is, there will the eagles be gathered together.”


19V15: A sharp sword = The Old Testament and New Testament (the Bible) or the Word.


“Out of His mouth issues a sharp, two-edged sword, an emblem of the power of His word.” (The Sanctified Life, page 77) 


Hebrews 4:12, “For the word of God is quick, and powerful, and sharper than any twoedged sword, piercing even to the dividing asunder of soul and spirit, and of the joints and marrow, and is a discerner of the thoughts and intents of the heart.”


Ephesians 6:17, “And take the helmet of salvation, and the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God:”


The sword also represents the use of civil power, see Revelation 13:10. In this situation of the second coming and Jesus ruling with a rod of iron and smiting nations, this could refer to Jesus using his authority as King of Kings and Lord of Lords (civil power) to judge nations since the verse says He’s coming to ‘smite the nations’. 


Revelation 13:10, “He that leadeth into captivity shall go into captivity: he that killeth with the sword must be killed with the sword. Here is the patience and the faith of the saints.”


19V15: Winepress = The winepress is mentioned in Revelation 14:18-20. The grapes represent the wicked that are thrown into the winepress and crushed. The grape juice splatters as the blood splatters on the robe of Jesus, see verse 13 (vesture dipped in blood); see also Jeremiah 25:30-38.


Jeremiah 25:30-38, “Therefore prophesy thou against them all these words, and say unto them, The LORD shall roar from on high, and utter his voice from his holy habitation [Jesus says, ‘It is done.’, Revelation 16:17]; he shall mightily roar upon his habitation; he shall give a shout [1 Thessalonians 4:16], as they that tread the grapes [Revelation 14:17-20; 19:15], against all the inhabitants of the earth. A noise shall come even to the ends of the earth; for the LORD hath a controversy with the nations, he will plead with all flesh; he will give them that are wicked to the sword [Revelation 19:15], saith the LORD. Thus saith the LORD of hosts, Behold, evil shall go forth from nation to nation, and a great whirlwind shall be raised up from the coasts of the earth [the second coming and the destruction of the wicked]. And the slain of the LORD shall be at that day from one end of the earth even unto the other end of the earth: they shall not be lamented, neither gathered, nor buried [the millennium when the earth is left desolate]; they shall be dung upon the ground. Howl, ye shepherds, and cry; and wallow yourselves in the ashes, ye principal of the flock: for the days of your slaughter and of your dispersions are accomplished; and ye shall fall like a pleasant vessel [Revelation 16:12; 18:7-10; the followers of the beast realize they’ve been lied to and turn on the false religious leaders that led them astray]. And the shepherds shall have no way to flee, nor the principal of the flock to escape. A voice of the cry of the shepherds, and an howling of the principal of the flock, shall be heard: for the LORD hath spoiled their pasture. And the peaceable habitations are cut down because of the fierce anger of the LORD. He hath forsaken his covert, as the lion: for their land is desolate because of the fierceness of the oppressor, and because of his fierce anger.”

This verse expands on what was written in Revelation 14:20, “And the winepress was trodden without the city, and blood came out of the winepress, even unto the horse bridles, by the space of a thousand and six hundred furlongs.” In this verse it doesn’t mention who is riding the horses, but in chapter 19 it explains that it is God’s army of angels. 

19V15: Rod of iron = Points to Psalm 2. 



  • Revelation 19:16, And he hath on his vesture and on his thigh a name written, KING OF KINGS, AND LORD OF LORDS.


19V16: This verse shows that in the Bible name and title are interchangeable. It mentions that He has a name written on his robe and then gives His title, King of Kings and Lord of Lords. God uses many names/titles in the Bible, Exodus 3:13-14 (I AM THAT I AM and I AM); Isaiah 9:6 (Wonderful, Counsellor, The mighty God, The everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace).  

19V16: This same title/name is also used in Revelation 17:14. 



  • Revelation 19:17, And I saw an angel standing in the sun; and he cried with a loud voice, saying to all the fowls that fly in the midst of heaven, Come and gather yourselves together unto the supper of the great God;


19V17: This verse and verse 18 are pulling from the Old Testament, Ezekiel 39:17-20. 


Ezekiel 39:17-20, “And, thou son of man, thus saith the Lord GOD; Speak unto every feathered fowl, and to every beast of the field, Assemble yourselves, and come; gather yourselves on every side to my sacrifice that I do sacrifice for you, even a great sacrifice upon the mountains of Israel, that ye may eat flesh, and drink blood. Ye shall eat the flesh of the mighty, and drink the blood of the princes of the earth, of rams, of lambs, and of goats, of bullocks, all of them fatlings of Bashan. And ye shall eat fat till ye be full, and drink blood till ye be drunken, of my sacrifice which I have sacrificed for you. Thus ye shall be filled at my table with horses and chariots, with mighty men, and with all men of war, saith the Lord GOD.”


Of course, Revelation 19:11-21 are describing events in symbolic language. 


The birds represent Satan and his demons and they are feasting on the leaders of the earth which is described in the next verse. 


The birds as Satan and his demons was presented to us in Revelation 18:2, “And he cried mightily with a strong voice, saying, Babylon the great is fallen, is fallen, and is become the habitation of devils, and the hold of every foul spirit, and a cage of every unclean and hateful bird.”

19V17: Loud voice = This is a world-wide message. See Revelation 6:10 (Loud voice = All the dead around the world from the beginning of time); see Revelation 14:7, 9, the three angel’s messages are a loud voice because they are a world-wide message.


19V17: Midst of heaven = This is referring to the atmosphere where birds fly. There are three heavens in the Bible; First heaven = Atmosphere (Genesis 7:23; Acts 1:11; Isaiah 65:17), Second heaven = Sun, moon and stars (Genesis 22:17), and third heaven = Dwelling place of God (Matthew 5:16).


19V17: There are two suppers, this one which the wicked are eaten by the birds which is explained in verse 21. The supper of the Lamb is in verse 9 and is for the righteous. 



  • Revelation 19:18, That ye may eat the flesh of kings, and the flesh of captains, and the flesh of mighty men, and the flesh of horses, and of them that sit on them, and the flesh of all men, both free and bond, both small and great.


19V18: This verse points to all the leaders and merchants that were aligned with the beast and received riches as explained in chapter 18, specifically verses 9, 11 and 15. 

19V18: Eat the flesh = Satan and his demons will ‘eat the flesh’ of the leaders and merchants of the world symbolically. This means that demons will be very active during this time in earth’s history. They will have enormous influence on the kings and merchants of the earth and will use, abuse and deceive them to fight against God. 

19V18: At the second coming of Jesus Christ all the wicked that are alive on the earth are destroyed, 2 Thessalonians 1:7-9, 2:8; Jeremiah 4:23-26. See the study called, Second Coming of Jesus Christ at the end of chapter 3 for more details of what happens during this event. 



  • Revelation 19:19, And I saw the beast, and the kings of the earth, and their armies, gathered together to make war against him that sat on the horse, and against his army.


19V19-20: Describes the final judgment after the millennium; chapter 19 doesn’t explain the thousand years, but chapter 20 goes back and explains the thousand years (remember one of the principles of studying Revelation is repeat and enlarge); chapter 20 fits between verses 18 and 19.12


19V19: Kings of the earth and their armies = The wicked resurrected after the millennium for the final judgment, see Revelation chapter 20:5, 7, 9.


19V19: This is the second and final battle of Armageddon. See Revelation 16:16 where Armageddon is mentioned. This is the final mobilization to destroy God’s people.13 The battle of Armageddon begins right before the second coming of Jesus and ends after the millennium when the wicked are resurrected, they try to capture God’s city and God reigns fire and brimstone down upon them to destroy them once and for all. This is the lake of fire and brimstone mentioned in the next verse. The battle of Armageddon begins before the first resurrection and ends after the second resurrection.



  • Revelation 19:20, And the beast was taken, and with him the false prophet that wrought miracles before him, with which he deceived them that had received the mark of the beast, and them that worshipped his image. These both were cast alive into a lake of fire burning with brimstone. 


19V20: Beast = The first beast of Revelation 13, the antichrist or papal system of worship, Revelation 13:1-10.


19V20: False prophet = The second beast of Revelation 13, the United States of America, Revelation 13:13-14.


19V20: Cast alive into a lake of fire burning with brimstone = The people and specifically the leaders that made up the papal system (first beast of Revelation 13) and the false prophet that made an image to the beast (second beast of Revelation 13) are fully destroyed after the millennium. The beast and false prophet are symbolically destroyed at the second coming, those systems will no longer exist; for example in Revelation 13:3 it mentions the deadly wound; this doesn’t mean an individual receives a deadly wound, it was the papal system that received the deadly wound, see Revelation 20:10.14 But after the millennium, the individuals that made up these false systems are destroyed in the lake of fire and brimstone. The systems were technically destroyed at the second coming when the earth is destroyed, but the people will be destroyed in hellfire after the millennium.  



  • Revelation 19:21, And the remnant were slain with the sword of him that sat upon the horse, which sword proceeded out of his mouth: and all the fowls were filled with their flesh.


19V21: This verse jumps back to the events in the second coming of Jesus. Verses 19-20 flashed forward to the end of the millennium when the wicked are resurrected to face the final judgment and are then destroyed in hellfire, Revelation 20 and 21. 


19V21: The remnant were slain = This refers to a remnant of wicked people that are left after the seven last plagues. This remnant of wicked people that are left on the earth will be killed at the second coming of Christ, 2 Thessalonians 1:7-9, 2:8; Jeremiah 4:23-26. See the study called, Second Coming of Jesus Christ for more details of what happens during this event. 


19V21: This explains that the wicked are the supper of the great God in verse 17. 



Chapter 19 Resources and Notes

1.  Pastor James Rafferty and Pastor Ivor Myers, Salvation in Symbols and Signs (Program on 3ABN’s Dare To Dream Network), video series can be accessed here:


2.  Ibid.


3.  Pastor Stephen Bohr, Unsealed Secrets Ministry video series called, 24 Elders, can be accessed here:


4.  Pastor James Rafferty and Pastor Ivor Myers, Salvation in Symbols and Signs (Program on 3ABN’s Dare To Dream Network), video series can be accessed here:


5.  Ibid.


6.  Ibid.


7.  Ibid.


8.  Ibid.


9.  Ibid.


10.  Ibid.


11.  Ibid.


12.  Pastor Stephen Bohr, Unsealed Secrets Ministry video series called, Three Angels Message, can be accessed here:


13.  Pastor Doug Batchelor, Amazing Facts Ministry video called, The Battle of Armageddon, Can be accessed here:


14.  Pastor James Rafferty and Pastor Ivor Myers, Salvation in Symbols and Signs (Program on 3ABN’s Dare To Dream Network), video series can be accessed here:



Ellen White references can be found here:

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